This will appear throughout your course in order to facilitate access to a number of different functions and settings. The important thing to remember is that this block is context sensitive so will have different options in it depending on where you are within the Moodle site.
For example, when on the Home page, a Teacher will have limited access to make changes, so there is only a Navigation block present.
General profile settings are found below the username in the top right hand corner, where the logged in username is visible. Click on the username where a downward arrow is present.
However, when in a Moodle Course, those with Teacher permissions will be able to customise all aspects of it. As this is the case, the Administration block adjusts accordingly to allow access to these additional features (as shown in the following image).